陳焦摘要

 

摘要

透過FujihataGPS作品,這篇文章希望提問的是,GPS作為一項最初以武器導航為發展目的技術,當它被藝術家「轉」作為藝術創作「用途」時,科技地景將可能被以何種方式再現?在這樣的科技地景中,人與地域(territoire; territory)之間的關係將會以什麼樣的方式被織結著?在這之中,痕跡、敘述(narration)、地圖、空間又將會如何互相形塑?在這些探究中,我們將會看到Fujihata如何在GPS中發現那些被以任何「有用的用途」作為預設前提所排除掉的使用方式,並且讓這項科技成為揭露另一種世界觀的途徑之一。

 

 

關鍵字:

GPS, Masaki Fujihata, 藝術與科技,痕跡,地圖,地景,複數世界觀

 

 

ABSTRACT

Through Masaki Fujihata’s GPS works, this article proposes to provide a survey on the appropriation of GPS technology by art. With the knowledge in mind that this technology is originally developed as a military navigation system, we are interested in how the technological landscape is represented through this technology adopted by this Japanese artist. What kind of relationship is knitted between man and territory in this landscape? How trace, narration, map and space shape one another? We will see how the vision of the world constructed by the original and any later uses considered “useful” can be changed and all this consequently helps forming plural visions of the world.

 

Keywords :

GPS, Masaki Fujihata, art and technology, trace, map, landscape, plural visions of the world

 

 

 

 

Helen Grace's Abstract

 

Deterritorialisation or extra-territoriality?

 

Between globalization and localization we can say a kind of deterritorialization exists, (as Deleuze and Guattari understand the term) – a continuum that in practice destabilizes the polarity of the two original terms, producing its own ‘micro-climates’ of influence, beyond the power structures of geopolitics (though not undetermined by them). We can attempt to rethink a relation to art and aesthetics within the multiple modernities of Asia, disrupting a linear and singular history of world art that increasingly seeks to incorporate regional and stylistic variants in order to refresh itself, and so the environmental model of ‘micro-climate’ seems a productive way of thinking and of clearing a space for contemplation and revival of thought, beyond the solidification of market values within broader global circuits.

 

However, there is also a danger that the very looseness and openness of a deterritorialized space lends itself to fresh forms of colonization, so that we may end up with a situation of extra-territoriality, rather than a new and different ‘reterritorialisation’, remapping a previous world. By ‘extra-territoriality’, we mean the possibility of a zone of operation beyond the jurisdiction of local law and operating according to the laws of an external power. (Examples are the operation of diplomatic services, military bases or foreign ‘concessions’).

 

Although the term generally belongs to the sphere of geopolitics and international law, can we say that art operates in an extra-territorial sense? In this paper I want to consider an instance of extraterritoriality in the circulation of private art collections in Asia, focusing on the LV exhibition held in Hong Kong this summer and on some other regional examples. In discussing this phenomenon I am interested in historical patterns of exchange and the ways in which contemporary circuits are beginning to reverse the direction of flows, also shifting them in new directions, establishing new circuits and pathways beyond horizontal ‘East-West’ polarities.

 

 

 

蔡幸芝摘要 

 

 

 

台灣社會的樣貌,存有過去外來殖民統治的烙印,亦有國家定位的統獨之爭,以及當前國際現實的深刻影響。「現代性的困境」作為一個哲學與文化上的議題,來自西方思想家對他們自十五世紀文藝復興以來,「理性主體性」為信念發展至今的文明,出現巨大的危機,提出檢討,尋求因應之道。現代性引起種種扭曲、異化的現象,卻非西方社會所獨有,當西方人通過殖民主義、貿易往來及意識型態的輸出,使得世界上大多數的族群與世代,都接收到西方現代性深淺不一的影響。特別是,當非西方國家也歷經道德、宗教、威權所建立的前現代社會崩解頹敗之際,往往將「現代化視同西化」,力圖追趕「進步與成功」的腳步。就此而言,現代性的困境不是區域現實,而是普遍的現狀。台灣社會在政經制度與生活型態上,都表現出現代性的成就,亦顯露現代性的弊端。

 

本文試圖提出一個建設性的方針,主張藝術的審美原理取代理性的原理,重建一個無壓抑的人類文明。文章的鋪陳上,先就「今日現代性的困境是理性的困境」之緣由,從哲學的觀點闡釋理性主體性的發現、理性的優位性與本質變異的問題。再者,在現代性的困境乃既成事實的認知下,針對如何改變現狀提出回應,筆者認為若以意欲之力取代理性,並不能造就無壓抑的文明,而是取消理性的壓抑之後,產生新型態的壓抑。因此,筆者主張破除理性優位性的迷思,保留理性的正面而適度的作用之外,恢復構想力的自由與創造的特質,並以藝術的審美原理作為建立社會新秩序的方針。對此,文中將闡述康德、席勒、馬庫色的美學路線,已發展出一條超越藝術領域的社會作用,指出藝術的本質是自由的創造,異質元素能在藝術中獲得協調一致的關係,而其遵循的審美原理又講求創造性的自由中,自然形成內在的而非外加的合理秩序。換言之,理性原理建構的壓抑性文明是以犧牲個體自由換取社會秩序,則審美原理提供了保有個體自由又締造社會秩序的可能。最後,筆者探討此理路落實於台灣社會與國際秩序中的可能。台灣作為國際社會的一份子,無法自免於現代性的困境之外,然而我們又面臨國際文化的侵襲下,建立文化獨特性的雙重挑戰。筆者認為藝術的審美原理亦合適於架構台灣社會與國際秩序的關係,使得在地化與國際化不是輕重取捨的兩難,而是各地自主發展的同時亦形構出多元而統一的國際秩序。

 

關鍵字 

 

現代性、現代性的困境、理性主體性、理性化、實質理性、工具理性、異化、構想力、先驗圖式、審美、天才、無利害關心的愉快、無目的的合目的性、共通感、自由遊戲、無壓抑的社會、典範的原創性

 

 

Elizabeth Tsai's Abstract

 

 

 

In Taiwan, there can be noticed the brand from colonization of the past, the current dispute on the status of the nation, that is, on independence or unification with China, and immense impact of the reality of international situation. The dilemma of modernity as a both philosophical and cultural issue arises out of the western thinkers’ reflection on and their attempted solution for the enormous crisis due to the civilization developed since the Renaissance of the 15th century, which was founded upon rational subjectivity. However, the phenomena of all sorts of distortion and alienation caused by modernization are by no means peculiar to western societies. The ideologies exported through global colonization and trade have left most peoples and generations worldwide with various degrees of influences of modernity. It is note worthy that the non-western countries tend to regard the movement of modernization as westernization while managing to catch up with the western progress and success as they undergo the collapse of their pre-modern societies built upon of morality, religion and authority. In this regard, the dilemma of modernity is a global current situation, not merely a regional reality. The socio-political systems and patterns of life in Taiwan display both the achievements and the drawbacks of modernity.

 

This paper attempts to forward a constructive strategy to reconstruct the human civilization free of repression by replacing the rational principle with the aesthetic principle. I start with a philosophical explication of the discovery of the rational subjectivity, the priority of reason, and the alienation of it to elucidate the reason why the dilemma of modernity today is indeed the dilemma of reason itself. Then I proceed to provide a tentative solution for the situation described, given the acknowledgement of the dilemma of modernity. I contend that the replacement of reason with the will to power does not lead to a civilization free of repression; instead, it brings forward new forms of repression after abolishing the former ones of reason. Therefore I maintain that we need to disenchant the myth of the priority of reason while retaining its positive and appropriate function, to reinstate the free and creative nature of imagination, and to establish new social order with the aesthetic principle of art. It will be pointed out that the aesthetics of Kant, Schiller, and Marcuse have developed a social function of art that transcends the realm of art itself. These philosophers claim that the essence of art is free creation, wherein heterogeneous elements can coordinate in harmony, and the aesthetic principle it follows inculcates a naturally formed, not forced, reasonable order inherent in the creative freedom. In other words, the price of having order in the repressive civilization founded upon rational principle is the freedom of individuals, whereas the aesthetic principle provides the possibility of establishing order without the individual freedom being sacrificed.

 

Finally I probe into the feasibility of realizing the mentioned idea in Taiwan’s society and the international order. As a member of international community, Taiwan has no way out of the dilemma of modernity. However, we are at the same time confronted with the challenges of both the difficult task of establishing our cultural uniqueness and the invasion of alien cultures. I conclude that the aesthetic principle of art is appropriate for Taiwan to fit herself into the framework of international order, because this very principle can turn the localization/internationalization dilemma into a co-construction of multiple local developments together with a diverse but unified international order. 

 

 

Key words

 

modernity, the dilemma of modernity, rational subjectivity, rationalization, substantive rationality, instrumental rationality, alienation, Imagination, transcendental schema, aesthetic, genius, disinterested pleasure, purposiveness without purposes, common sense, free play, non-repressive society, exemplary originality,

 

 

 

 

 

 

    以上按英文字母順序排列

The names on the list are in alphabetical order

 

 

 

 

 

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